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Last Updated: May 14th 2016 at 5:51 AM


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As the significance of business improvement districts (BIDs) has grown in recent
years in the governance of urban and metropolitan areas, not only in North America
but also in a variety of European, Asian, and African countries, academic interest in
them followed. BIDs are self-assessment districts that are initiated and governed by
property or businessowners
and authorized by state or local governments to operate
in designated
urban and suburban
geographic areas. In the relatively short history
of the academic
on BIDs, they have been interpreted in a variety of ways
and analyzed through different theoretical lenses. To some, they are yet another
example of the privatization of the delivery of public services. To others, they are
hopeful examples
of self-governance by communities of business owners, promising
examples of public–
private partnerships, and/or local governments’ tools to revitalize
decaying urban cores.

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